Cancer in the bladder is the result of unnatural growth of the cells in the bladder (The function of the bladder is to store urine before it is excreted out of the body). Bladder lining is the most common area for the occurrence of cancer causing cells. Urinary tract infection is the first symptom of this cancer but after certain time one can observe the following symptoms in bladder cancer as well:
* Pain while urinating
* Irregular urine flow
* Unsuccessful urination attempts
* Pelvic pain
There are several tests like Urine Cytology, Cystoscopy, FISH tests, Tumor Marker Tests and Intravenous Pyelogram that are used to diagnose bladder cancer effectively. Cancer of the kidney or also known as renal carcinoma is commonly found in older people. It affects men more than it does women. Renal cell carcinoma is the common kidney tumor type found in adults which originates in the linings of the small tubes in the kidney. Some external factors that contribute to the formation of these cancer cells include obesity and smoking. The symptoms are not easy to detect until the cancer grows to certain level as the tumors are slow growing. The symptoms include blood in urine, tiredness, palpable mass and pain. High blood pressure may also be caused due to kidney cancer.
Furthermore, PSA or Prostate-Specific Antigen test is used to identify prostate cancer. The normal psa level is about 2.5 ng/ml for men of 60 or younger while it is 4 bg/ml for men older than 60. The score determined at the end of the tests shows the stage of your cancer. By studying the advancement of the cancer the doctors are able to decide the appropriate prostate cancer treatment. Brachytherapy is used to intervene when the cancer has advanced to the next stage. It is an internal radiotherapy that is used when the cancer spreads to other parts of the body other than the prostate glands. In this treatment the nearby tissues that are healthy are not affected which is the reason it is widely implemented. Prostate cancer may give rise to high psa levels as a cancer cell generates PSA 10 times more than the normal and healthy cells.
With the advancement of technology, robotics in surgery made the operations less complicated and more precise. Human errors can be shrewdly avoided and the results are more efficient. It is a convenient option, as the robots can easily reach those areas of the body where the humans find difficulties to perform operation.